Hazardous Materials Chemical Exposures
While performing work at a Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) site, personnel must have training sufficient to effectively protect them against unnecessary chemical exposure(s).
Preventing exposure to toxic chemicals is a primary concern at HAZWOPER sites. Most sites contain a variety of chemical substances in gaseous, liquid, or solid form. These substances can enter the unprotected body by inhalation, skin absorption, ingestion, or through a puncture wound (injection). A contaminant can cause damage at the point of contact or can act systemically, causing a toxic effect at a part of the body distant from the point of initial contact. A key part of hazmat online certification is to teach an individual how to avoid exposure to hazards.
Chemical exposures are generally divided into two categories: acute and chronic. Symptoms resulting from acute exposures usually occur during or shortly after exposure to a sufficiently high concentration of a contaminant. The concentration required to produce such effects varies widely from chemical to chemical. The term "chronic exposure" generally refers to exposures to "low" concentrations of a contaminant over a long period of time. The "low" concentrations required to produce symptoms of chronic exposure depend upon the chemical, the duration of each exposure, and the number of exposures. For a given contaminant, the symptoms of an acute exposure may be completely different from those resulting from chronic exposure.
The chemical exposure is either chronic or acute. The toxic effect may be temporary and reversible, or may be permanent (disability or death). Some chemicals may cause obvious symptoms such as burning, coughing, nausea, tearing eyes, or rashes. Other chemicals may cause health damage without any such warning signs (this is a particular concern for chronic exposures to low concentrations). Health effects such as cancer or respiratory disease may not become manifest for several years or decades after exposure. In addition, some toxic chemicals may be colorless and/or odorless, may dull the sense of smell, or may not produce any immediate or obvious physiological sensations. Thus, a worker's senses or feelings cannot be relied upon in all cases to warn of potential toxic exposure.
The effects of exposure not only depend on the chemical, its concentration, route of entry, and duration of exposure, but may also be influenced by personal factors such as the individual's smoking habits, alcohol consumption, medication use, nutrition, age, and sex.
An important exposure route of concern at a HAZWOPER site is inhalation. The lungs are extremely vulnerable to chemical agents. Even substances that do not directly affect the lungs may pass through lung tissue into the bloodstream, where they are transported to other vulnerable areas of the body. Some toxic chemicals present in the atmosphere may not be detected by human senses, i.e., they may be colorless, odorless, and their toxic effects may not produce any immediate symptoms. Respiratory protection is therefore extremely important if there is a possibility that the work-site atmosphere may contain such hazardous substances. Chemicals can also enter the respiratory tract through punctured eardrums. Where this is a hazard, individuals with punctured eardrums should be medically evaluated specifically to determine if such a condition would place them at unacceptable risk and preclude their working at the task in question.
Direct contact of the skin and eyes by hazardous substances is another important route of exposure. Some chemicals directly injure the skin. Some pass through the skin into the bloodstream where they are transported to vulnerable organs. Skin absorption is enhanced by abrasions, cuts, heat, and moisture. The eye is particularly vulnerable because airborne chemicals can dissolve in its moist surface and be carried to the rest of the body through the bloodstream (capillaries are very close to the surface of the eye). Wearing protective equipment, not using contact lenses in contaminated atmospheres (since they may trap chemicals against the eye surface), keeping hands away from the face, and minimizing contact with liquid and solid chemicals can help protect against skin and eye contact during HAZWOPER operations.